Operational Summary (1944)

January 1944

The 28th January 1944 directive issued to Bomber Command stated that until a further ruling has been given by the Combined Chief of Staffs, RAF Bomber Command, in so far as is practicable, is to direct its effort to the attack of selected towns associated with the production of German fighter aircraft and ball-bearings.

Targets included Schweinfurt, Leipzig, Brunswick, Regensburg, Augsburg and Gotha.

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: “The New Year opened with the continuation of the Battle of Berlin and out of ten operations during the month, four were made on the German capital, one on Stettin, one on Brunswick, one on Magdeburg, one on Heligoland, one on a special target in France and on the night of 28th, four aircraft took part in and did the marking for a sea mining raid. All four attacks on Berlin were made under conditions of 10 / 10ths cloud but in spite of this skymarking was successful and some good concentrations were achieved. The attack on Heligoland served two other purposes apart from the actual bombing of the island itself (1) a diversion for the main attack which was on Berlin (2) for Stirlings to lay mines nearby under cover of the attack. Four Halifax aircraft also carried out an Air Sea Rescue search but this proved unsuccessful”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 02/01/1944 Berlin
  • 05/01/1944 Stettin
  • 14/01/1944 Brunswick
  • 14/01/1944 Special target
  • 20/01/1944 Berlin
  • 21/01/1944 Magdeburg
  • 27/01/1944 Heligoland
  • 28/01/1944 Berlin
  • 28/01/1944 Forget-me-not
  • 30/01/1944 Berlin

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

February 1944

The 17th February 1944 directive issued to Bomber Command reaffirmed that the overall mission was “the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic system, the disruption of vital elements of lines of communication and material reduction of German air combat strength”

Targets listed in the January 1944 directive remained of the highest priority for Bomber Command along with Berlin and other important industrial areas.

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: “The squadron operated on eight nights during the month which included three sea mining raids”.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 15/02/1944 Berlin
  • 15/02/1944 Gardening
  • 19/02/1944 Gardening
  • 19/02/1944 Leipzig
  • 20/02/1944 Stuttgart
  • 22/02/1944 Gardening
  • 24/02/1944 Schweinfurt
  • 25/02/1944 Augsburg

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from WR Horner’s Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Roger Ward]

March 1944

The 4th March 1944 directive issued to Bomber Command set out targets for the moonlight period prior to Operation Overlord.

Targets included Friedrichshafen, various railway installations (Trappe, Aulnoye, Le Mans, Amiens / Longeau, Courtrai and Laon), the airfield at Montdidier and ammunition dumps at Maintenon, near Chartres.

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: “During the month the squadron effected a change over from Halifax aircraft to Lancasters. The last operation with Halifax aircraft was on the night of 1st March on Stuttgart, and the first with Lancasters on 15th March, also on Stuttgart. Up to the end of March, five more operations were carried out making a total of 7 in all for March”.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/03/1944 Stuttgart
  • 15/03/1944 Stuttgart (*)
  • 18/03/1944 Frankfurt
  • 22/03/1944 Frankfurt
  • 24/03/1944 Berlin
  • 26/03/1944 Essen
  • 30/03/1944 Nuremberg

(*) Lancaster aircraft were first used by the squadron

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from WJ Simpson’s Log Book [Courtesy of John Rogers]

April 1944

The 17th April directive issued to Bomber Command restated that the overall mission was “the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic system and the disruption of vital elements of lines of communication”.

It added that prior to Overlord the aim was:

  • To deplete the German air force and particularly the German fighter forces and to destroy and disorganise the facilities supporting them
  • To destroy and disrupt the enemy’s rail communications, particularly those affecting the enemy’s movement towards the Overlord area

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: “The squadron operated on ten nights during the month. The bulk of their effort was devoted to bombing transportation centres and marshalling yards in Northern France. During the month they operated in strength on attacks on Laon, Lille, Rouen, Villeneuve-St-George and Acheres. In addition, they participated on major attacks on Aachen, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Karlsruhe, Essen and Friedrichshafen. On five occasions, when precision bombing was required, the squadron provided the Master Bomber whose function it was to direct the bombing of the main force”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 09/04/1944 Lille
  • 10/04/1944 Laon
  • 11/04/1944 Aachen
  • 18/04/1944 Rouen
  • 20/04/1944 Cologne
  • 22/04/1944 Laon
  • 24/04/1944 Karlsruhe
  • 26/04/1944 Essen
  • 26/04/1944 Villeneuve St.Georges
  • 27/04/1944 Friedrichshafen
  • 30/04/1944 Acheres

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from JC Black’s Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Geoff Black]

May 1944

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: “The squadron operated on fourteen nights during the month, most of the attacks being directed against marshalling yards and communications in northern France. Further “shaking up” attacks were carried out against Ruhr targets which were badly damaged last year”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 03/05/1944 Montdidier
  • 07/05/1944 Nantes
  • 08/05/1944 Haine-St.Pierre
  • 10/05/1944 Lens
  • 11/05/1944 Boulogne
  • 11/05/1944 Hasselt
  • 11/05/1944 Louvain
  • 19/05/1944 Boulogne
  • 21/05/1944 Duisburg
  • 22/05/1944 Dortmund
  • 24/05/1944 Aachen
  • 27/05/1944 Bourg Leopold
  • 27/05/1944 Rennes
  • 28/05/1944 Mardick
  • 31/05/1944 Mont Couple
  • 31/05/1944 Trappes

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from DR Hall’s Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Stephen Cooke]

June 1944

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: The squadron operated seventeen times during the month. Continued bad weather considerably hampered operations which were directed chiefly against strategic targets behind the front in France and flying bomb sites which began operating in the middle of the month. Two daylight raids were made on the latter.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 02/06/1944 Trappes
  • 05/06/1944 Longues
  • 05/06/1944 Maisy
  • 06/06/1944 Chateaudun
  • 06/06/1944 St-Lo
  • 07/06/1944 Foret De Cerisy
  • 08/06/1944 Fougeres
  • 08/06/1944 Mayenne
  • 09/06/1944 Rennes
  • 11/06/1944 Paris
  • 11/06/1944 Tours
  • 12/06/1944 Arras
  • 14/06/1944 Evrecy
  • 15/06/1944 Fouillard
  • 15/06/1944 Lens
  • 16/06/1944 Pas de Calais
  • 16/06/1944 Sterkrade
  • 22/06/1944 Laon
  • 23/06/1944 Coubronne
  • 24/06/1944 Middel Straete
  • 24/06/1944 Rimeux
  • 25/06/1944 Montorgueil
  • 27/06/1944 Biennais
  • 27/06/1944 Oisemont/Neuville Au Bois
  • 30/06/1944 Oisemont/Neuville Au Bois

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from H Furner’s Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Phil Furner]

July 1944

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: Although a considerable number of sorties were flown, operations were again hampered by bad weather. Attacks were directed mainly against flying bomb sites, oil targets in the Ruhr and towards the end of the month, attacks were resumed against the big German cities. Several daylight attacks were made on flying bomb sites and in close support to our troops in Normandy. An interesting feature of the former was the new technique of formation attacks behind Oboe aircraft, evolved in an attempt to overcome the weather conditions.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 04/07/1944 Villeneuve St.Georges
  • 06/07/1944 Coquereaux
  • 06/07/1944 Marquise/Mimoyecques
  • 06/07/1944 Siracourt
  • 07/07/1944 Caen
  • 09/07/1944 Catelliers
  • 09/07/1944 L’Hey
  • 10/07/1944 Nucourt
  • 11/07/1944 Gapennes
  • 12/07/1944 Rollez
  • 12/07/1944 Thiverby
  • 12/07/1944 Tours
  • 14/07/1944 St.Philibert-Ferme
  • 15/07/1944 Les Landes Vielles et Neuves
  • 15/07/1944 Nucourt
  • 16/07/1944 St.Philibert-Ferme
  • 18/07/1944 H2-Manneville
  • 18/07/1944 M-Cagny
  • 18/07/1944 Wesseling
  • 20/07/1944 Montcandon
  • 20/07/1944 Wizernes
  • 22/07/1944 L’Hey
  • 23/07/1944 Foret-De-Croc
  • 23/07/1944 Kiel
  • 24/07/1944 Stuttgart
  • 25/07/1944 Stuttgart
  • 28/07/1944 Hamburg
  • 28/07/1944 Stuttgart
  • 30/07/1944 Normandy
  • 31/07/1944 Constructional Works at Foret De Nieppe

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from CW Eyles Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Hazel King]

August 1944

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: Bad weather again considerably hampered operations this month, nevertheless the squadron participated in attacks on a wide range of targets. Flying Bomb Sites figured prominently at the beginning of the month and later included battlefront aiming points, daylight attacks on German Night Fighter bases in the Low Countries and the German ports of Bremen, Kiel and Stettin.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 03/08/1944 Constructional Works at Bois de Cassan
  • 04/08/1944 Constructional Works at Trossy-St-Maxim
  • 04/08/1944 Oil Depot at Bec-d’Ambes
  • 05/08/1944 Constructional Works at Acquet
  • 06/08/1944 Constructional Works at Foret De Nieppe
  • 07/08/1944 Normandy
  • 08/08/1944 Fuel Dump at Aire-Sur-La-Lys
  • 09/08/1944 Foret De Nieppe
  • 09/08/1944 La Neuville
  • 09/08/1944 Prouville
  • 11/08/1944 Douai
  • 12/08/1944 Falaise
  • 12/08/1944 Russelsheim
  • 14/08/1944 Falaise
  • 15/08/1944 Le Culot
  • 15/08/1944 Volkel air base (Holland)
  • 16/08/1944 Stettin
  • 18/08/1944 Bremen
  • 18/08/1944 Railway Sidings at Connantre
  • 25/08/1944 Constructional Works at Watton
  • 25/08/1944 Gun Emplacements at Brest
  • 26/08/1944 Kiel
  • 27/08/1944 Gewerkschaft Rheinpreussen AG at Homberg
  • 29/08/1944 Stettin
  • 31/08/1944 Pourchinte

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from GE Herod’s Flying Log Book (August 1944) [Courtesy of Paul Herod]

Target Photo (04/08/1944 Trossy-St-Maxim

September 1944

The 14th September 1944 directive issued to Bomber Command amended the overall mission to  read “the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic system and the direct support of land and naval forces”.

A further directive on 25th September set out the priorities as:

  1. Petroleum Industry
  2. The German rail and waterborne transportation systems
  3. Tank production plants and depots / ordnance depots
  4. Motor Transport production plants and depots

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: September was a busy month involving a considerable number of small calls for marking aiming points chiefly in the Calais – Le Havre area. Although the number of sorties flown and tonnage of bombs dropped is lower than might have been expected, the squadron participated in a considerable number of attacks. Several daylight attacks were made on oil targets in the Ruhr on which the only losses were incurred. Weather generally was only fair and considerably reduced the effectiveness of some attacks.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 03/09/1944 Gilze Rijen
  • 05/09/1944 Le Havre
  • 06/09/1944 Emden
  • 06/09/1944 Le Havre
  • 08/09/1944 Le Havre
  • 09/09/1944 Le Havre
  • 10/09/1944 Le Havre
  • 10/09/1944 Le Havre (Alvis”1″)
  • 11/09/1944 Gelsenkirchen
  • 11/09/1944 Le Havre
  • 11/09/1944 Le Havre-Cadillac 1
  • 11/09/1944 Le Havre-Cadillac 2
  • 12/09/1944 Dortmund
  • 12/09/1944 Frankfurt
  • 12/09/1944 Wanne-Eickel
  • 13/09/1944 Osnabruck
  • 15/09/1944 Kiel
  • 17/09/1944 Boulogne
  • 17/09/1944 Boulogne, AP5, AP3, AP2, AP4
  • 17/09/1944 Westkapelle
  • 20/09/1944 Calais
  • 23/09/1944 Neuss
  • 24/09/1944 Calais
  • 25/09/1944 Calais
  • 26/09/1944 Calais-various aiming points
  • 27/09/1944 Bottrop
  • 27/09/1944 Calais
  • 28/09/1944 Calais
  • 28/09/1944 Calais-various aiming points
  • 30/09/1944 Bottrop

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Target Photo (20/09/1944 Calais)

October 1944

In October, a letter was sent to Bomber Command outlining the plans for a special operation aimed at “bringing home to the enemy a realisation of this overwhelming superiority and the futility of continued resistance”

Operations “Hurricane I” and “Hurricane II” were aimed at applying within the shortest period of time the maximum effort of the RAF and VIIIth US Bomber Command against objectives in the Ruhr area

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: Although the number of operations are slightly down, the number of sorties are up on last month. Several big attacks have been made on targets in the Ruhr which included two on Essen, five on Cologne and one on Duisburg. Daylight attacks included two on Fort Frederik Henrik and two on gun positions on Walcheren Island. Essen and Cologne were also attacked in daylight.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 05/10/1944 Saarbrucken
  • 06/10/1944 Dortmund
  • 06/10/1944 Sterkrade
  • 11/10/1944 Fort Frederik Hendrik
  • 12/10/1944 Fort Frederik Hendrik
  • 12/10/1944 Wanne-Eickel
  • 14/10/1944 Duisberg [1]
  • 14/10/1944 Duisberg [2]
  • 15/10/1944 Wilhelmshaven
  • 19/10/1944 Stuttgart
  • 21/10/1944 Hanover
  • 23/10/1944 Essen
  • 25/10/1944 Essen
  • 28/10/1944 Cologne
  • 28/10/1944 Walcheren
  • 29/10/1944 Walcheren
  • 30/10/1944 Cologne
  • 31/10/1944 Cologne

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Target Photo Sterkrade 6th October 1944 [Courtesy of Graham Briggs]

November 1944

he 1st November 1944 directive issued to Bomber Command reiterated that the overall mission was “the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic system and the direct support of land and naval forces”.

However, tank production plants and depots / ordnance depots and motor transport production plants and depots were removed from the list of priorities so that maximum resources could be applied to the petroleum industry and the German rail and waterborne transportation systems.

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: A slightly heavier tonnage of bombs was dropped this month than was the case in October, though the number of both operations and sorties was less. In support of the Army’s drive on the Ruhr, several attacks were made on rail and transportation centres in that area. Towards the end of the month, OBOE Lancasters operated for the first time from this squadron.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/11/1944 Oberhausen
  • 02/11/1944 Dusseldorf
  • 04/11/1944 Bochum
  • 06/11/1944 Gelsenkirchen
  • 16/11/1944 Duren
  • 18/11/1944 Munster
  • 18/11/1944 Wanne-Eickel
  • 20/11/1944 Koblenz
  • 21/11/1944 Aschaffenburg
  • 21/11/1944 Sterkrade
  • 21/11/1944 Wesel
  • 21/11/1944 Worms
  • 27/11/1944 Freiburg
  • 27/11/1944 Neuss
  • 29/11/1944 Dortmund

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from WJ Phillips Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Lisa Phillips]

December 1944

The squadron’s monthly summary shows: Operations were considerably hampered by bad weather particularly after the middle of the month when long periods of fog were experienced. Attacks were directed mainly against strategic targets in the Ruhr area but also included the more distant ones of Leuna, Nuremberg and Ulm. Close support attacks to aid our troops in the Ardennes battle necessitated operating in very bad weather and 3 aircraft were lost in this period.

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 04/12/1944 Urft Dam
  • 05/12/1944 Soest
  • 06/12/1944 Merseburg (Leuna)
  • 12/12/1944 Essen
  • 15/12/1944 Ludwigshafen
  • 17/12/1944 Duisburg
  • 17/12/1944 Ulm
  • 21/12/1944 Cologne
  • 22/12/1944 Koblenz
  • 23/12/1944 Cologne (Daylight Raid)
  • 24/12/1944 Cologne (Daylight Raid)
  • 26/12/1944 St.Vith
  • 27/12/1944 Rheydt
  • 28/12/1944 Bonn
  • 30/12/1944 Gelsenkirchen

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Target Photo (23/12/1944 Cologne)