Operational Summary (1945)

January 1945

The 15th January 1945 directive issued to Bomber Command reiterated that the overall mission was “the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic system and the direct support of land and naval forces”.

The directive set out the priorities as:

  1. Petroleum Industry
  2. The German lines of communication
  3. Industrial areas
  4. German Air Force (primarily its jet production, training and operational establishments)
  5. U-Boat Organisation

The squadron monthly summary shows: “Owing to bad weather, the squadron only operated on nine nights during the month. Cloud conditions reduced the effectiveness of these attacks (Zeitz and Magdeburg being the most outstanding successes). Oil targets and communication centres again figured prominently among the targets”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 02/01/1945 Ludwigshafen
  • 02/01/1945 Nuremberg
  • 05/01/1945 Hanover
  • 06/01/1945 Hanau
  • 07/01/1945 Munich
  • 13/01/1945 Saarbrucken
  • 14/01/1945 Grevenbroich
  • 14/01/1945 Merseburg/Leuna
  • 16/01/1945 Magdeburg
  • 16/01/1945 Zeitz
  • 22/01/1945 Gelsenkirchen
  • 28/01/1945 Marshalling Yards at Stuttgart

Aircraft utilised on operations were as follows:

  • Avro Lancaster (B.I): NG434 NG436 SW266
  • Avro Lancaster (B.III): ME331 ME333 ME334 ME335 ME337 ME361 ME362 ME367 ME369 ND916 PB257 PB288 PB305 PB343 PB364 PB566 PB583 PB613 PB614 PB676 PB684

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

February 1945

The squadron monthly summary shows: “During the middle of the month a spell of adverse weather cut down the number of operations by the squadron to fifteen; these included three daylight attacks on Mainz, Essen and Kamen. Of the remaining operations, a very successful attack was made on Dresden in support of the Russian Army and a Western Front Army support attack on Goch. Other attacks were chiefly on railway and communication centres”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/02/1945 Mainz
  • 02/02/1945 Wanne Eickel
  • 04/02/1945 Bonn
  • 07/02/1945 Goch
  • 08/02/1945 Politz
  • 13/02/1945 Bohlen
  • 13/02/1945 Dresden
  • 14/02/1945 Chemnitz
  • 14/02/1945 Chemnitz (2)
  • 20/02/1945 Dortmund
  • 20/02/1945 Reisholz
  • 21/02/1945 Duisburg
  • 23/02/1945 Essen
  • 23/02/1945 Pforzheim
  • 24/02/1945 Kamen
  • 27/02/1945 Mainz

Aircraft utilised on operations were as follows:

  • Avro Lancaster (B.I): NG434 NG436 NG440 SW255 SW266
  • Avro Lancaster (B.III): ME331 ME333 ME334 ME335 ME337 ME361 ME362 ME367 ME369 PB257 PB288 PB305 PB364 PB369 PB613 PB614 PB676 PB684

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Log Book Extract [Courtesy of Paul Herod]

March 1945

The squadron monthly summary shows: “A favourable month’s weather enabled the squadron to carry out nineteen attacks, with a total of 210 sorties flown. During these operations, a total of 778 tons of bombs was dropped, a figure which has only been exceeded once before (in July of last year). The majority of the attacks were in support of the Western Front and on railway and transportation centres, eight of them being carried out in daylight”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/03/1945 Mannheim (Daylight Raid)
  • 02/03/1945 Cologne (Daylight Raid)
  • 03/03/1945 Oil Plant at Kamen
  • 05/03/1945 Chemnitz
  • 07/03/1945 Dessau
  • 07/03/1945 Oil Refinery at Hemmingstedt
  • 08/03/1945 Blohm and Voss Works at Hamburg
  • 11/03/1945 Essen (Daylight Raid)
  • 12/03/1945 Dortmund (Daylight Raid)
  • 13/03/1945 Oil Plant at Gelsenkirchen
  • 15/03/1945 Benzol Plant at Bottrop
  • 15/03/1945 Oil Refinery at Misburg
  • 18/03/1945 Witten
  • 20/03/1945 Oil Plant at Heide
  • 21/03/1945 Benzol Plant at Bruchstrasse
  • 24/03/1945 Gladbeck (Daylight Raid)
  • 25/03/1945 Munster
  • 25/03/1945 Osnabruck (Daylight Raid)
  • 27/03/1945 Paderborn (Daylight Raid)

Aircraft utilised on operations were as follows:

  • Avro Lancaster (B.I): NG434 NG436 NG440 SW266
  • Avro Lancaster (B.III): ME331 ME333 ME337 ME361 ME362 ME369 PB257 PB288 PB305 PB364 PB566 PB583 PB613 PB614 PB676 PB684

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Target Photo (15/03/1945 Misburg)

April 1945

The 16th April 1945 directive issued to Bomber Command stated that the main mission of the Strategic Air Forces was “direct assistance to the land campaign”

The directive set out the priorities as:

  1. Petroleum Industry
  2. The German lines of communication
  3. German Air Force (primarily its jet production, training and operational establishments)
  4. U-Boat Organisation

The squadron monthly summary shows: “Owing to the rapid advances of our troops on the Western Front, targets to attack became fewer and the squadron only operated thirteen times. On the 24th of the month it took part in dropping medical supplies on the POW Camp at Neubrandenburg and on the 30th the first Operation Manna was carried out on Valkenburg, on which five Lancasters of the squadron did the marking for the main force to drop food containers over Holland.”

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 03/04/1945: Nordhausen.
  • 04/04/1945: Synthetic Oil Plant at Leuna
  • 08/04/1945: Blohm and Voss Works at Hamburg [1 loss]
  • 09/04/1945; Kiel
  • 10/04/1945|: Marshalling Yards at Plauen
  • 10/04/1945: Engeldorf Marshalling Yards at Leipzig
  • 11/04/1945 Marshalling Yards at Bayreuth
  • 14/04/1945 Potsdam
  • 16/04/1945 Marshalling Yards at Schwandorf
  • 18/04/1945 Heligoland (Daylight Raid)
  • 22/04/1945 Bremen (Daylight Raid)
  • 24/04/1945 Medical Supplies to Neubrandenburg POW Camp
  • 25/04/1945 Gun positions at Wangerooge Island
  • 30/04/1945 Food drops at Valkenburg (Operation Manna)

Aircraft utilised on operations were as follows:

  • Avro Lancaster (B.I): NG434 NG436 NG440 PB951 PB982 PB985 PB987 PB988 PB989 RF183 SW266
  • Avro Lancaster (B.III): ME337 ME362 ME369 PB257 PB264 PB288 PB305 PB364 PB377 PB383 PB566 PB583 PB613 PB614 PB676 PB684 PB685 PB971 PB973 PB980 PB981

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from WJ Simpson’s Log Book [Courtesy of John Rogers] and Target Photo (14/04/1945 Potsdam) [Courtesy of Linda Lindeke]

May 1945

The squadron monthly summary shows: “No offensive operations were carried out during the month and the eighth was announced as VE Day. Up to VE Day, the squadron was engaged on Manna Operations, which included three on Ypenburg and one on Rotterdam” From the 8th of the month, Exodus Operations were commenced and a total of seven were carried out, one on Brussels, two on Lubech and four on Juvincourt. Finally, Cooks’ Tours of the bombed areas in Germany were started on 22nd, and up to the end of the month, ten of these flights were made.

All Commonwealth personnel were posted to RAF Station Graveley (supernumerary) on 24th May 1945, in readiness for repatriation

No. 35 Squadron was requested to prepare and dispatch aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/05/1945: Ypenburg (Operation Manna)
  • 02/05/1945: Ypenburg (Operation Manna)
  • 04/05/1945: Ypenburg (Operation Manna)
  • 05/05/1945: Ypenburg (Operation Manna)
  • 07/05/1945: Rotterdam (Operation Manna)
  • 08/05/1945: Brussels (POW Repatriation) [Operation Exodus]
  • 09/05/1945 Lubech (POW Repatriation) [Operation Exodus]
  • 10/05/1945 Lubech (POW Repatriation) [Operation Exodus]
  • 15/05/1945 Juvincourt (POW Repatriation) [Operation Exodus]
  • 15/05/1945 Inter-Services Boxing Team back to the UK
  • 22/05/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 23/05/1945 Juvincourt (POW Repatriation) [Operation Exodus]
  • 25/05/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 26/05/1945 Juvincourt (POW Repatriation) and Cooks Tour
  • 28/05/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 29/05/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 30/05/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 31/05/1945 Cooks’ Tour

Aircraft utilised on operations (up to 8th May 1945) were as follows:

  • Avro Lancaster (B.I): NG436 PB985 PB988 PB989 RF183
  • Avro Lancaster (B.III): PB257 PB288 PB684 PB951 PB973 PB980 PB981 RF163

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:


June 1945

The squadron monthly summary shows: “During the month, 20 Cooks’ Tours were carried out embracing a total of 352 passengers. On the 25th, Operation “Post Mortem” was initiated and up to the end of the month, 2 of these exercises were carried out. Also during the month, 3 “Bullseye” exercises were carried out on 8/9th, 15/16th and 18/19th

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 02/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 04/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 05/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 07/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 08/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 09/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 11/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 12/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 13/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 14/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 15/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 16/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 18/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 19/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 21/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 22/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 23/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 25/06/1945 Post Mortem Exercise [Denmark]
  • 28/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 29/06/1945 Post Mortem Exercise [Denmark]
  • 30/06/1945 Cooks’ Tour

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

July 1945

A joint monthly summary for No 35 and No 227 Squadron (stationed at RAF Graveley) shows: For the first time since the 2nd May 1945, aircraft took-off from Graveley carrying “live bombs”, but their target was a stretch of water in the North Sea (as they were surplus incendiaries); 59 trips took place on six days of the month. Cooks’ Tours were carried out on 13 days of the month and a total of 366 passengers were carried. 8 aircraft were utilised for Operation Liberty, transporting personnel from the continent on leave and on the 28th of the month “Operation Dodge” was initiated to convey personnel from Italy on leave.

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/07/1945 Post Mortem Exercise [Denmark]
  • 02/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 03/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 04/07/1945 Post Mortem Exercise [Denmark] and Cooks’ Tours
  • 05/07/1945 Post Mortem Exercise [Denmark] and Cooks’ Tours
  • 06/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 07/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 09/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 12/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour, Operation Liberty and Bullseye Exercise
  • 13/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 16/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 17/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour, Operation Liberty and Bullseye Exercise
  • 19/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 20/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour, Operation Liberty and Bullseye Exercise
  • 23/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour and Bomb Disposal
  • 24/07/1945 Bomb Disposal
  • 25/07/1945 Bomb Disposal and Operation Liberty
  • 28/07/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 31/07/1945 Cooks’ Tour

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

August 1945

A joint monthly summary for No 35 and No 227 Squadron (stationed at RAF Graveley) shows: August 1945 will, long, be remembered for on Wednesday the 15th it was announced by the Prime Minister, Clement Atlee that Japan had accepted the Allied demand for unconditional surrender, thus bringing to an end World War II, which had ravaged the world for six years. Our squadrons were engaged during the month on the peaceful task of transporting men from the continent on leave, carrying out 14 Dodge operations, a total of 988 men from Italy. 11 aircraft took part in Liberty operations during the month and on 3 days, Cooks’ Tours were carried out, giving 54 passengers the opportunity of seeing the damage caused in Germany. Both squadrons took part in a Bullseye exercise on the 2nd and 2 out of 19 Lancaster were intercepted by Night Fighters

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/08/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 02/08/1945 Cooks’ Tour and Bullseye Exercise
  • 03/08/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 04/08/1945 Cooks’ Tour and Operation Dodge
  • 07/08/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 08/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 11/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 13/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 15/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 16/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 17/08/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 19/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 20/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 22/08/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 23/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 24/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 26/08/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 28/08/1945 Operation Dodge

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from H Breeze’s Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Rich Boakes]

September 1945

A joint monthly summary for No 35 and No 227 Squadron (stationed at RAF Graveley) shows: A change of squadrons took place during the month at Graveley, for on the 5th, 227 Squadron was disbanded and on 11th, 115 Squadron took their place. Before they ceased to exist, 227, in the company of 35 Squadron carried out the following operations; Transported 460 men on leave from Italy in 5 days, a total of 23 aircraft being used (Operation Dodge). Cooks’ Tours were carried out over 2 days, enable 42 passengers in 7 aircraft to view the bomb damage in Germany. 7 aircraft were used for Liberty Operations. 115 Squadron became operational on 11th of the month, and with 35 Squadron, carried on the good work. On 8 days, an Operation Dodge took place with 37 aircraft being used to ferry 740 men on leave for Italy (Operation Dodge). 8 aircraft were used for Liberty Operations, and on 2 days, a further 8 aircraft were utilised to convey 48 passengers on a Cooks’ Tour of the Ruhr. Operation Spasm was initiated on 26th of the month which provided a limited number of people to fly to Berlin, with an overnight stay, to enable them to inspect the bomb damage; 3 operations were carried out with 9 aircraft involved. 35 Squadron provided 3 aircraft on the night of the 6th to take part in a Bullseye exercise; no fighters were encountered. An “At Home” was held on the 14th when various RAF Stations throughout the country were opened to the public for inspection. Graveley was asked to provide 4 Lancasters to take part and the aircraft, complete with crews, were on show at Odiham, Filton, Cark and Valley. September was quite a busy month.

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/09/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 02/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 03/09/1945 Cooks’ Tour
  • 04/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 05/09/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 06/09/1945 Bullseye Exercise
  • 07/09/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 09/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 13/09/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 14/09/1945 “At Home” Exhibition (Odiham and Filton)
  • 15/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 17/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 18/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 19/09/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 20/09/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 21/09/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty
  • 27/09/1945 Operation Spasm [Berlin Overnight Stay], Operation Liberty and Cooks’ Tour
  • 29/09/1945 Operation Spasm [Berlin Overnight Stay]
  • 30/09/1945 Operation Dodge and Operation Liberty

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

October 1945

A joint monthly summary for No 35 and No 115 Squadron (stationed at RAF Graveley) shows: The first of the month brought us good flying weather, of which we took full advantage by putting as many aircraft in the air as possible. 22 aircraft were used to transport a total of 432 passengers from Italy to the United Kingdom (Operation Dodge). 14 aircraft were used to transport to 291 passengers between this country and the continent (Operation Liberty). 9 aircraft were used to tour the area of the Ruhr viewing the bomb damage; a total of 54 passengers were carried (Cooks’ Tour). 6 aircraft were employed to transport passengers to Berlin where they stayed overnight inspecting bomb damage (Operation Spasm). The weather was quite good for flying up to 20th, after that, the weather held us back from completing a very good month of flying

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/10/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 02/10/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 03/10/1945 Operation Spasm [Berlin Overnight Stay] and Operation Dodge
  • 05/10/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 08/10/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 09/10/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 11/10/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 12/10/1945 Operation Liberty and Operation Dodge
  • 13/10/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 16/10/1945 Cooks’ Tour and Operation Dodge
  • 19/10/1945 Operation Liberty and Bullseye Exercise
  • 20/10/1945 Operation Liberty
  • 27/10/1945 Operation Liberty

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

November 1945

A joint monthly summary for No 35 and No 115 Squadron (stationed at RAF Graveley) shows: The month of November brought the usual adverse weather conditions to Graveley. In the early mornings, there was mainly fog and bad visibility. The desire to fly was there but the elements were against us. With the combined efforts of 35 and 115 Squadron, 31 aircraft took part in Operation Dodge, transporting 635 passengers from Italy to the United Kingdom.

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 07/11/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 08/11/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 23/11/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 25/11/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 27/11/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 28/11/1945 Operation Dodge

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows:

Extract from SEL Sturgeon’s Flying Log Book [Courtesy of Bobbie Grew]

December 1945

A joint monthly summary for No 35 and No 115 Squadron (stationed at RAF Graveley) shows: Once again, as for the month of November, the weather conditions were adverse and the month’s flying was even more limited by the standing down of crews over the Christmas period. 3 aircraft (2 of which were from other squadrons but flown by our crews) transported 45 passengers from Italy to the UK (Operation Dodge). 4 aircraft were employed to transport 11 passengers on a tour of Berlin (Operation Spasm). To summarise the whole month’s undertaking, it is only fair to state that weather has spoiled what might have otherwise been a very good month’s flying.

No. 35 Squadron prepared and dispatched aircraft and crews for the following operations:

  • 01/12/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 02/12/1945 Operation Spasm
  • 06/12/1945 Operation Dodge
  • 14/12/1945 Night Fighter Affiliation

Aircraft losses and incidents were as follows: